Network Topology Examples: The 3 Structures to Know (2023)

By Tibor Moes / Updated: June 2023

Network Topology Examples: The 3 Structures to Know (2023)<br />

Network Topology Examples

Imagine planning a road trip. You have to choose the best routes connecting all your dream destinations, ensuring efficient travel times and easy navigation. Well, network topology is the road map of the digital world, highlighting the most effective paths for data to travel.


Network topology refers to the arrangement and interconnections of nodes (devices) in a computer network. It dictates the data paths, impacts network performance, and determines how devices communicate with each other.

Example 1: ARPANET (1969). The grandparent of the modern internet, ARPANET, was an early packet-switching network and the first network to implement TCP/IP, the protocol suite that drives the internet today. It initially used a decentralized mesh topology, allowing multiple pathways for data, enhancing robustness and reliability.

Example 2: Star Network Topology in Ethernet (1980s). With the advent of Ethernet technology in the 1980s, star topology became widespread. In this configuration, all devices are connected to a central hub. It allows easy addition or removal of devices and is a popular topology for home and office networks.

Example 3: P2P Networks (Early 2000s). Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks emerged as a significant shift in network design. Unlike the centralized model of the star topology, P2P networks are decentralized, connecting nodes directly with each other. They’re widely used in applications like BitTorrent, making large-scale data distribution efficient.

Don’t become a victim of cybercrime. Protect your devices with the best antivirus software and your privacy with the best VPN service.

Network Topology Examples In-Depth

ARPANET (1969)

The Internet: A Marvel of the Modern World

When we think of the internet today, we often take it for granted, treating it like air or water – always there, always available. Yet, the internet, in its earliest form, was as revolutionary as the first manned flight. Like many scientific breakthroughs, its origin is rooted in a project born out of necessity, known as ARPANET.

The Dawn of Digital Connections: ARPANET

ARPANET, short for the “Advanced Research Projects Agency Network,” is like the founding father of the internet we know today. Developed in the late 60s, ARPANET was a child of the Cold War era. The goal was simple but ambitious: to create a network that could survive even if parts of it were destroyed, say, during a nuclear attack. The network was designed so data could travel along multiple routes, not just one. If one route was blocked, the data could take another path to its destination.

The structure ARPANET used was called a mesh topology. Picture a fishing net. Each knot is a node or a computer, and each thread is a connection. If one thread snaps, the other threads still hold the net together. That’s precisely how a mesh network works. Each computer is connected to several others, creating multiple data pathways. If one pathway goes down, the data can simply reroute itself through another.

The Game Changer: Packet Switching

But ARPANET’s real genius came from a concept called packet switching. Let’s use the analogy of a highway. Traditionally, if you were sending data from point A to point B, it would be like a single car driving from one city to another. But what if there was a traffic jam or a road closure? That car wouldn’t reach its destination.

ARPANET introduced a new idea. Instead of sending the whole data ‘car’, why not break it down into ‘passengers’, or packets? Each passenger could then take a different car, or pathway, to the destination. If one road was blocked, the others could still get through. Once they all reached the destination, they would reassemble into the original data ‘car’. This groundbreaking idea revolutionized how data was sent across networks, paving the way for the robust, global internet we have today.

ARPANET to Internet: A Giant Leap

Over time, ARPANET grew, connecting more and more nodes, evolving, adapting, and setting the stage for the creation of the modern internet. While its purpose may have been rooted in defense, ARPANET inadvertently gave birth to a tool that transformed every aspect of society, from how we work and play to how we learn and connect with each other.

In the end, ARPANET serves as an incredible example of network topology and a testament to human ingenuity. It reminds us how a robust network design can help data find its way, even in the face of obstacles, ensuring that the digital world keeps spinning, no matter what.

As we click away on our devices, let’s remember the humble beginnings of our modern digital universe – a mesh of interconnected nodes called ARPANET.

Star Network Topology in Ethernet (1980s)

From ARPANET to Ethernet: A Quantum Leap

If ARPANET was the trailblazer for the world of network topology, Ethernet and the star topology became the steady workhorse that carried the digital revolution forward. Launched in the 1980s, Ethernet introduced a whole new way for devices to communicate, and along with it, a new form of network design – the star network topology.

The Star in the Digital Sky: Star Network Topology

Imagine a solar system. You have the sun at the center and the planets revolving around it. The star network topology is designed in a similar manner. Instead of the sun, you have a central device (like a switch or a hub). Surrounding this are other devices – computers, printers, or servers, much like planets around the sun. Each ‘planet’ connects directly to the ‘sun’ via its own ‘orbit’ or cable. This setup creates a star-like pattern, hence the name.

Perks of the Star: Easy Maintenance and Scalability

Now, why would we want a network designed like this? For starters, it’s easy to maintain and expand. If a new ‘planet’ – say, a laptop – needs to join the solar system, you just create a new ‘orbit’, or in technical terms, connect it to the central device with a cable. Similarly, if a device malfunctions, it can be removed or replaced without disturbing the rest of the network.

A Star’s Weakness: The Center Holds it All

But just like a solar system, if the ‘sun’ – the central device – goes down, the whole network suffers. Yet, this potential weakness is often outweighed by the star topology’s benefits, including simplicity and easy troubleshooting.

Ethernet: The Powerhouse of Star Networks

With the introduction of Ethernet technology, the star topology’s adoption surged. Ethernet enabled devices to communicate using electrical signals over a common cable, providing a fast and efficient way to transmit data. By marrying the simplicity of the star topology with the power of Ethernet, a new era of networking was ushered in, dominating homes, offices, and data centers worldwide.

As we plug into our home routers or office switches, remember the star network topology and Ethernet that make our digital connections possible. Whether it’s sending an important work email, streaming a favorite movie, or keeping security systems active, they’re all powered by this ‘stellar’ concept in network design. So, the next time you gaze up at a starry sky, take a moment to appreciate the star-like networks humming away, making our digital world turn.

P2P Networks (Early 2000s)

Breaking Away from the Center: P2P Networks

Imagine a classroom where every student, not just the teacher, has valuable knowledge to share. They interact with each other, exchanging information directly. This isn’t the traditional, top-down teaching method – this is a peer-to-peer (P2P) system. And just as it could revolutionize a classroom, it’s brought dramatic changes to the world of network topology since the early 2000s.

A Network of Equals: The P2P Concept

In a P2P network, all computers (or peers) are equal. They share resources and communicate directly with each other, without needing a central server or authority. It’s like a group of friends sharing their favorite books. There’s no need for a library or librarian. Each friend can lend or borrow directly from the others.

The Strength of P2P: Decentralization and Efficiency

The P2P model offers several advantages. Its decentralized nature makes it robust and difficult to shut down because there’s no single point of failure. It’s also incredibly efficient for sharing large files. If a friend in our book-sharing group has a really thick novel, they don’t have to give it to just one person at a time. They can tear out pages (don’t worry, this is a hypothetical situation!), and give different pages to different friends. Once everyone has a copy of all the pages, they can each assemble their own complete book. In the digital world, this method allows for faster distribution of large files, like movies or software.

The P2P Revolution: A New Way to Share

One of the best-known applications of P2P networking is BitTorrent. BitTorrent took the P2P concept and ran with it, creating a protocol that allows for efficient downloading and uploading of large files. It’s been a game changer in data sharing, even though it’s been controversial because of associations with illegal file sharing.

P2P Today: Beyond File Sharing

But P2P networking isn’t just about sharing files. It has found a place in the world of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, where decentralized networks are crucial. It’s also used in VOIP services (like Skype) and streaming TV services. As our digital world continues to grow, P2P networks will likely find even more applications.

So, next time you download a large file or make a call over the internet, remember the P2P network working silently in the background. It’s a prime example of how changing the way we connect can open up a world of possibilities. It shows us that sometimes, stepping away from the center and giving power to the peers can lead to innovation and efficiency, in the classroom, the library, or the vast world of network topology.


Just as the map guided the explorers of old through uncharted lands, network topology charts the course of data through the vast digital landscape. From the pioneering mesh of ARPANET to the centralized structure of star topology in Ethernet, and finally to the decentralized sharing of P2P networks, each step has represented a leap forward in the evolution of our connected world. And just like our explorers, we’re still discovering new territories, devising new paths for our data to travel. So, the next time you send an email, stream a movie, or download a file, take a moment to appreciate the complex and ingenious network topology that makes it all possible.

How to stay safe online:

  • Practice Strong Password Hygiene: Use a unique and complex password for each account. A password manager can help generate and store them. In addition, enable two-factor authentication (2FA) whenever available.
  • Invest in Your Safety: Buying the best antivirus for Windows 11 is key for your online security. A high-quality antivirus like Norton, McAfee, or Bitdefender will safeguard your PC from various online threats, including malware, ransomware, and spyware.
  • Be Wary of Phishing Attempts: Be cautious when receiving suspicious communications that ask for personal information. Legitimate businesses will never ask for sensitive details via email or text. Before clicking on any links, ensure the sender's authenticity.
  • Stay Informed. We cover a wide range of cybersecurity topics on our blog. And there are several credible sources offering threat reports and recommendations, such as NIST, CISA, FBI, ENISA, Symantec, Verizon, Cisco, Crowdstrike, and many more.

Happy surfing!

Frequently Asked Questions

Below are the most frequently asked questions.

What is the difference between physical and logical network topology?

Physical network topology refers to the actual, physical layout of all the devices in a network and how they’re interconnected. On the other hand, logical topology refers to how data is actually transmitted across those connections. For instance, a network could have a physical star topology but use a ring logical topology, meaning data travels in a circular path as if it were in a ring network.

Why is network topology important?

Network topology is crucial as it influences the performance, scalability, reliability, and cost of a network. It dictates how data is transmitted, how devices communicate, and what happens when a device or connection fails. The right topology can enhance efficiency and ease troubleshooting, while the wrong one can hinder performance and complicate network management.

Are there other types of network topologies beyond the ones mentioned in this article?

Yes, there are several other types of network topologies, including ring, tree, and bus topologies. Each one has its own strengths and weaknesses, and they can be used individually or combined in various ways to meet specific network needs. The choice of topology depends on factors like the network’s size, the distance data needs to travel, the nature of the data being transmitted, and the budget available for network setup and maintenance.

Author: Tibor Moes

Author: Tibor Moes

Founder & Chief Editor at SoftwareLab

Tibor is a Dutch engineer and entrepreneur. He has tested security software since 2014.

Over the years, he has tested most of the best antivirus software for Windows, Mac, Android, and iOS, as well as many VPN providers.

He uses Norton to protect his devices, CyberGhost for his privacy, and Dashlane for his passwords.

This website is hosted on a Digital Ocean server via Cloudways and is built with DIVI on WordPress.

You can find him on LinkedIn or contact him here.

Security Software

Best Antivirus for Windows 11
Best Antivirus for Mac
Best Antivirus for Android
Best Antivirus for iOS
Best VPN for Windows 11

Cyber Technology Articles

Active Directory (AD)
Android Examples
Android Types
Authentication Types
Biometrics Types
Bot Types
Cache Types
CAPTCHA Examples
Cloud Computing
Cloud Computing Examples
Cloud Computing Types
Compliance Examples
Computer Cookies
Confidentiality Examples
CPU Examples
CPU Types
Cryptocurrency Examples
Cryptocurrency Types
Dark Web
Data Breach
Data Broker
Data Center
Data Center Types
Data Integrity
Data Mining
Data Mining Examples
Data Mining Types
Dedicated Server
Digital Certificate
Digital Footprint
Digital Footprint Examples
Digital Rights Management (DRM)
Digital Signature
Digital Signature Examples
Digital Signature Types
Endpoint Devices
Ethical Hacking
Ethical Hacking Types
Facial Recognition
Fastest Web Browser
General Data Protection Regulation
GPU Examples
GPU Types
Hard Disk Drive (HDD) Storage
Hardware Examples
Hardware Types
Hashing Examples
Hashing Types
HDMI Types
Hosting Types
Incognito Mode
Information Assurance
Internet Cookies
Internet Etiquette
Internet of Things (IoT)
Internet of Things (IoT) Examples
Internet of Things (IoT) Types
iOS Examples
iOS Types
IP Address
IP Address Examples
IP Address Types
LAN Types
Linux Examples
Linux Types
Local Area Network (LAN)
Local Area Network (LAN) Examples
Machine Learning
Machine Learning Examples
Machine Learnings Types
MacOS Examples
MacOS Types
Modem Types
Netiquette Examples
Network Topology
Network Topology Examples
Network Topology Types
Operating System
Operating System Examples
Operating System Types
Password Types
Personal Identifiable Information (PII)
Personal Identifiable Info Examples
Port Forwarding
Private Browsing Mode
Proxy Server
Proxy Server Examples
QR Code Examples
QR Code Types
Quantum Computing
Quick Response (QR) Code
RAM Examples
RAM Types
Random Access Memory (RAM)
Router Examples
Router Types
SD Wan
Server Examples
Server Types
Shareware Examples
Shodan Search Engine
Software Examples
Software Types
Solid State Drive (SSD) Storage
Static vs Dynamic IP Address
Tor Browser
URL Examples
URL Types
USB Types
Virtual Private Server (VPS)
Web Browser
Web Browser Examples
Web Browser Types
Web Scraping
Website Examples
Website Types
WEP vs WPA vs WPA2
What Can Someone Do with Your IP
Wi-Fi Types
Windows Examples
Windows Types