Does Linux Need Antivirus? How to Stay Safe (2023)

By Tibor Moes / Updated: June 2023

Does Linux Need Antivirus

Does Linux Need Antivirus? How to Stay Safe (2023)

Are you one of the growing number of Linux enthusiasts who take pride in their operating system’s robust security? Then you might be wondering whether you need antivirus protection for your Linux machine.

In this blog post, we dive deep into the world of Linux security, discuss the reality of Linux malware, assess the need for antivirus software, and explore the available antivirus solutions. Buckle up, and let’s explore the nitty-gritty of antivirus protection for Linux.


  • Linux’s open-source collaboration results in faster identification and patching of security vulnerabilities, making it harder for malware to exploit emerging threats.

  • Desktop Linux users will likely not need antivirus software, but should use strong passwords, two-factor authentication, and a VPN to protect against identity theft.

  • Linux-based servers could potentially use antivirus software, as Windows machines could upload and download malware to and from the server.

Don’t become a victim of cybercrime. Protect your Windows, macOS, and Android devices with the best antivirus software and your privacy with the best VPN service.

Understanding Linux and Its Security

Linux is an open-source operating system known for its robust security features. It stands out from other operating systems, such as Windows and MacOS, mainly due to its open-source nature and permission-based structure. This unique combination of features has made the linux operating system a popular choice for linux servers and other mission-critical systems, including the use of a linux machine.

But does this mean Linux is immune to malware and cyberattacks? Let’s delve deeper.

Open-Source Advantage

One of the key security advantages of Linux is that it is open-source, meaning its code is freely available for everyone to inspect, modify, and redistribute. The open-source nature enables a large community of developers to collaborate and improve the software continuously. This collaboration results in faster identification and patching of security vulnerabilities, making it harder for malware to exploit emerging threats.

However, Linux is not impervious to cyberattacks. Several types of threats can target Linux systems, including script-based viruses and worms, Trojans that deliver backdoors, ransomware, adware, spyware, and key-logging malware.

With this in mind, it’s essential to understand the security measures in place to protect Linux systems from these threats.

Permission-Based Structure

Linux’s security is further enhanced by its permission-based structure, which is derived from Unix concepts of file ownership and permissions. In Linux, there are three user-based permission groups: owner, group, and other. Each file and directory on a Linux system has an associated set of permissions, represented by the letters r (read), w (write), and x (execute).

This permission-based structure ensures that regular users cannot accidentally execute malicious software or perform administrative actions that could compromise the system. Most Linux malware can only affect what the user does and cannot access the root files of the system without administrative permissions.

This structure has made Linux inherently more secure than other operating systems, such as Windows, which typically grant users more extensive permissions by default.

The Reality of Linux Malware

Despite Linux’s security advantages, it is not immune to malware and cyberattacks. In recent years, Linux has seen an increase in malware and cyber threats aimed at its servers and workloads. The growing popularity of Linux in cloud environments and web servers has also attracted the attention of cybercriminals.

Let’s explore the types of threats targeting Linux and the increasing attention from cybercriminals.

Types of Threats Targeting Linux

Linux systems can fall victim to a variety of threats, including adware, spyware, rootkits, and key loggers. Trojans, a type of malware that masquerades as a legitimate program or file, can infiltrate Linux systems and deliver backdoors for attackers to gain unauthorized access.

In addition, ransomware can lock up Linux users’ data and demand a ransom for its release. Linux systems can also be targeted by adware, which displays unwanted ads on a user’s computer; spyware, which secretly collects user data; rootkits, which can hide from detection and infiltrate a system; and key loggers, which record user keystrokes to gain access to sensitive information.

These threats pose significant security risks to Linux users and their systems, highlighting the need for effective antivirus solutions.

Increasing Attention from Cybercriminals

While Linux is not typically a prime target for cybercriminals due to its lower market share compared to Windows and macOS, it has seen a surge in ransomware and other malware targeting its environment in recent years. Cybercriminals are constantly evolving their tactics and seeking new ways to exploit vulnerabilities, and they have increasingly set their sights on Linux systems as potential targets.

This growing attention from cybercriminals means that Linux users must be more vigilant than ever in protecting their systems. In the next section, we will assess the need for antivirus software on Linux and discuss the available solutions to defend against these emerging threats.

Assessing the Need for Antivirus on Linux

While it is true that desktop Linux users may not require antivirus software due to the operating system’s security features, it is recommended to install antivirus software on Linux-based file or mail servers. This precaution helps prevent infected Windows computers from uploading malicious files to Linux machines.

In the following sections, we will discuss the specific antivirus needs of desktop users and server administrators.

Desktop Users

As mentioned earlier, antivirus software is not necessary for desktop Linux users due to the system’s permission-based structure. Viruses can only affect a user’s files and cannot access the root files of the system without administrative permissions.

It is important to note that, while antivirus software may not be required for desktop Linux users, other security measures should still be in place, such as strong passwords, two-factor authentication, and VPN connectivity. Additionally, desktop users should stay informed about cybersecurity best practices and be cautious when downloading software from untrusted sources.

Server Administrators

For Linux-based file or mail servers, antivirus software is strongly recommended. Installing antivirus software on these servers helps prevent Windows computers from uploading infected files to Linux machines, thus reducing the risk of spreading malware throughout the network. It is crucial for server administrators to choose the right antivirus solution that offers comprehensive protection against various types of threats targeting Linux systems.

In addition to antivirus software, server administrators should also consider implementing other security measures, such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and regular security audits. These measures, combined with antivirus protection, can help ensure the security and integrity of Linux-based file and mail servers.

Available Antivirus Solutions for Linux

Several antivirus solutions are available for Linux users, offering features such as real-time scanning, automatic updates, and firewall protection. Some popular options include Bitdefender GravityZone and Kaspersky Endpoint Security, both of which provide reliable linux antivirus software.

In the following sections, we will explore the features, benefits, pricing, and scalability of these antivirus solutions for Linux.

Features and Benefits

Linux antivirus solutions offer a range of features to protect against various types of malware and cyberthreats. Some common features include on-demand and on-access scans, with real-time protection being the best choice for business environments. Additionally, antivirus solutions may provide graphical or command-line interfaces, depending on user preference.

Several antivirus solutions also offer features specifically designed for Linux-based operating systems. For example, Avast antivirus for Linux file servers can detect threats targeting systems running Linux, Windows, and MacOS. ESET NOD32, on the other hand, features a graphical user interface (GUI) that simplifies its use for users who may be less familiar with command lines.

Pricing and Scalability

Pricing and scalability options for Linux antivirus solutions vary depending on the specific needs of the user. For example, Kaspersky’s business antivirus solution covers up to 10 workstations and costs $404.20 per year, while ESET NOD32’s antivirus license starts at $39.99 annually for one device. Some antivirus providers, such as Kaspersky, also offer assistance in deploying the antivirus solution to an existing infrastructure at an additional cost.

When selecting an antivirus solution for Linux, users should consider factors such as the level of protection, ease of use, and compatibility with their specific Linux distribution. Additionally, the pricing and scalability options should align with the user’s budget and the size of their network.

Best Practices for Linux Security

To maximize operating system security on Linux, users should keep their systems updated, install software from trusted sources, and educate themselves on cybersecurity best practices.

In the following sections, we will discuss each of these best practices in more detail.

Regular Updates

One of the most crucial aspects of maintaining Linux security is keeping the system up-to-date with the latest patches and updates. This includes packages and system component updates that address security vulnerabilities or improve the system’s robustness. It is recommended to patch within two weeks of the release date, unless an exploit already exists, to strengthen system security and protect against cyber threats.

Linux distributions offer various tools for managing updates on linux desktops, both graphical and command-line, depending on user preference. Rolling releases are particularly beneficial for security, as they are always up-to-date and never require a full version upgrade.

Ensuring that your Linux system is up-to-date is a critical step in safeguarding against potential security threats.

Secure Software Installation

Another essential aspect of Linux security is installing software from trusted sources, such as official software repositories or well-known developers. Downloading software from untrusted sources increases the risk of installing malware or compromised software that could jeopardize the security of your Linux system.

When installing software on Linux, users should also pay attention to the permissions required by the software, as granting excessive permissions could expose the system to security risks. By carefully selecting software from trusted sources and ensuring that it requires only necessary permissions, users can further enhance the security of their Linux systems.

User Education and Training

User education and training play a vital role in Linux security. Educating users on the best practices for keeping their Linux systems secure, such as using strong passwords, staying on top of software updates, and avoiding suspicious emails and websites, can significantly reduce the risk of security breaches.

Several online courses and certifications can help employees develop their Linux security skills. In addition to formal education, users should stay informed about the latest cybersecurity trends and threats to ensure they are well-equipped to protect their systems.

By fostering a culture of security awareness, users can play an active role in safeguarding their Linux systems from potential threats.


In conclusion, Linux is a robust and secure operating system, but it is not immune to malware and cyberattacks. By understanding the security features of Linux and the types of threats targeting the system, users can make informed decisions about antivirus protection.

Antivirus software may not be necessary for desktop Linux users, but it is recommended for Linux-based file or mail servers. Various antivirus solutions are available for Linux, each offering unique features and benefits.

To maximize security, users should keep their systems updated, install software from trusted sources, and educate themselves on cybersecurity best practices. By following these guidelines, Linux users can ensure the continued security and integrity of their systems.

How to stay safe online:

  • Practice Strong Password Hygiene: Use a unique and complex password for each account. A password manager can help generate and store them. In addition, enable two-factor authentication (2FA) whenever available.
  • Invest in Your Safety: Buying the best antivirus for Windows 11 is key for your online security. A high-quality antivirus like Norton, McAfee, or Bitdefender will safeguard your PC from various online threats, including malware, ransomware, and spyware.
  • Be Wary of Phishing Attempts: Be cautious when receiving suspicious communications that ask for personal information. Legitimate businesses will never ask for sensitive details via email or text. Before clicking on any links, ensure the sender's authenticity.
  • Stay Informed. We cover a wide range of cybersecurity topics on our blog. And there are several credible sources offering threat reports and recommendations, such as NIST, CISA, FBI, ENISA, Symantec, Verizon, Cisco, Crowdstrike, and many more.

Happy surfing!

Author: Tibor Moes

Author: Tibor Moes

Founder & Chief Editor at SoftwareLab

Tibor has tested 39 antivirus programs and 30 VPN services, and holds a Cybersecurity Graduate Certificate from Stanford University.

He uses Norton to protect his devices, CyberGhost for his privacy, and Dashlane for his passwords.

You can find him on LinkedIn or contact him here.