Spyware Examples (2023): The 10 Worst Attacks of All Time

By Tibor Moes / Updated: May 2023

Spyware Examples (2023): The 10 Worst Attacks of All Time

Spyware Examples

Imagine this: You’re home, enjoying your peace and quiet, when suddenly a stranger slips in unnoticed, rifling through your personal things and listening in on your conversations. That’s exactly what spyware does to your computer! It’s a sneaky intruder that slips in and gathers your private data without your consent.

In this article, we’ll uncover the ten worst spyware examples ever, revealing the extent of this silent cyber menace. Don’t worry, we’ll keep it simple – no tech jargon, just the facts. Let’s begin our journey into the world of digital espionage.


Spyware is any piece of malware that infects your PC and spies on your personal personal information – ranging from search and browsing histories to login data and credit card details.

  1. Gator (late 1990s): One of the earliest forms of spyware, Gator, was created by Claria Corporation. It gathered information about users’ online habits and bombarded them with targeted advertising. It affected internet users globally.
  2. Stalkerware (2000): In the early 2000s, Stalkerware, a spying software, was used by jealous spouses, suspicious partners, or controlling parents to spy on victims’ personal lives. It was a major invasion of privacy, impacting individuals worldwide.
  3. CoolWebSearch (2003): This silent invader emerged in 2003, hijacking browsers to generate ad revenue. It affected millions of users globally, manipulating search results, and stealing browsing habits.
  4. Zlob Trojan (mid-2000s): This malicious program, disguised as a necessary video codec, infected individual users worldwide. It caused pop-up ads to appear and downloaded additional harmful programs onto users’ computers.
  5. FinFisher or FinSpy (2010): This sophisticated spyware was created by Gamma International and sold to law enforcement and government agencies. It infiltrated a variety of devices for surveillance and control, affecting individuals globally.
  6. Regin (early 2010s): A complex and highly sophisticated spyware, Regin, targeted businesses, government entities, and telecom companies, primarily in Russia and Saudi Arabia. Its capabilities included taking screenshots, controlling the mouse cursor, and stealing passwords.
  7. DarkHotel (2014): This spyware targeted business executives staying in luxury hotels in Asia, potentially intercepting sensitive business information. The attack was localized in Asia but had international victims.
  8. Fireball (2015): Created by a Chinese digital marketing agency, Rafotech, Fireball turned browsers into zombies, infecting an estimated 250 million machines worldwide. It manipulated web traffic for fraudulent advertising revenue.
  9. Pegasus (mid-2010s): Created by the NSO Group, this powerful spyware was used by governments and law enforcement agencies. It breached privacy on an unprecedented level by infiltrating any device or operating system, targeting individuals worldwide.
  10. Havex or Dragonfly (mid-2010s): This spyware infiltrated industrial control systems used in critical infrastructure, primarily in the US and Europe. Havex had the potential to cause significant disruptions and even physical damage to critical infrastructure.

Don’t become a victim of spyware. Protect your devices with one of the best antivirus software and your privacy with the best VPN service.

Spyware Examples In-Depth

1. Gator (late 1990s)

In the early days of the internet, there was a different kind of alligator lurking in the digital waters. This creature was known as Gator, one of the earliest forms of spyware to appear on the scene. This was back in the late 1990s and early 2000s, when the internet was still finding its footing and cybercriminals were only starting to see its potential.

Gator was created by a company known as Claria Corporation. They weren’t your typical group of rogue hackers, but a legitimate company that saw an opportunity to profit from the then-burgeoning digital ad industry. Gator’s victims were everyday internet users who unknowingly downloaded the software, thinking it would help manage their online passwords and forms.

From the bustling streets of New York to the quiet suburbs of London, no one was immune to Gator’s reach. It was a global problem. Gator was notorious for gathering information about users’ online habits and using this data to bombard them with targeted advertising. While it’s hard to put a dollar amount on the damage caused by Gator, the invasion of privacy and the nuisance of excessive ads were significant.

Eventually, countermeasures were put in place. Antivirus and anti-spyware programs were updated to detect and eliminate Gator. In 2003, Claria Corporation faced multiple lawsuits over their practices, leading to the eventual discontinuation of Gator.

2. Stalkerware, also known as Spouseware (2000)

It was the dawn of the new millennium, and the internet was still a novelty for many. But as early as the 2000s, a dark shadow began to emerge over this digital landscape, a shadow that still lingers today: Stalkerware. Unlike other types of cyberattacks, Stalkerware’s perpetrators were often not anonymous hackers or criminal organizations, but rather people known to the victims—jealous spouses, suspicious partners, or controlling parents.

The victims were individuals, their personal lives thrown open to relentless surveillance. Whether it was in bustling New York or the quiet countryside of Japan, no place was safe from this global threat. The damage wasn’t so much financial—though victims often had to bear the costs of spyware removal and legal fees—but deeply personal. The very fabric of trust was eroded as Stalkerware slipped into personal devices, spying on text messages, call logs, and even clandestinely turning on the microphone.

Thankfully, resilience rose in the face of this threat. Anti-spyware programs began identifying and removing Stalkerware. Advocacy groups campaigned for stricter laws against such invasive software. And yes, justice did sometimes prevail. Some overzealous snoopers faced legal consequences, including fines and jail time, although the laws varied widely from place to place.

3. CoolWebSearch (2003)

In 2003, a new player emerged on the scene, a silent invader known as CoolWebSearch. The true identities of those behind it remained shrouded in mystery, but their intentions were clear: hijack browsers for their own profit. The victims were individual internet users around the world. CoolWebSearch did not discriminate—it infiltrated computers wherever it could, turning web browsing into a nightmare.

While there’s no precise figure on the financial damage, we can imagine it was substantial. Millions of computers were believed to be infected, their browsers hijacked, their search results manipulated, all to generate ad revenue for the faceless entities behind CoolWebSearch. The victims’ search and browsing habits were stolen, traded as valuable data for targeted advertising, and potentially even used for identity theft.

But the internet community wasn’t about to stand idle. Anti-spyware and antivirus programs swiftly updated their capabilities to detect and remove this pesky intruder. Advice was circulated, warning users to avoid suspicious downloads, a first step toward a more informed and cautious online community.

The creators of CoolWebSearch have managed to evade the long arm of the law. However, their legacy—a more vigilant and protected digital world—continues to resonate.

4. Zlob Trojan (mid 2000s)

In the mid-2000s, a malevolent actor named Zlob Trojan made its way onto the world stage. Disguised as a necessary video codec in the form of ActiveX, it lured unsuspecting victims into a trap. It’s unclear who the creators of the Zlob Trojan were, but their work had the hallmarks of organized cybercriminals.

The victims were individual users, often those looking to stream or download video content. Their geography didn’t matter; whether in the heart of Europe or the far reaches of Asia, if they were connected to the internet, they were potential targets. The Zlob Trojan caused pop-up ads to appear and downloaded additional harmful programs onto users’ computers.

The financial damage caused by the Zlob Trojan is hard to quantify, but the cost in user frustration, system slowdowns, and the time and effort spent to remove the malware was substantial. The data it compromised varied widely, as it could download a range of other malicious programs, each with its own purpose and targets.

In response to this threat, antivirus and anti-spyware vendors updated their software to detect and remove the Zlob Trojan. Over time, its prevalence decreased, but not before it had left a significant mark on the internet and its users. Despite the considerable harm it caused, no specific legal consequences for the creators of Zlob Trojan have been reported.

5. FinFisher, also known as FinSpy (2010)

Somewhere around 2010, a sophisticated piece of spyware known as FinFisher began to make waves. Created by Gamma International, a UK and Germany-based company, this wasn’t the work of independent hackers but rather a commercial product sold to law enforcement and government agencies.

FinFisher was designed to infiltrate a variety of devices, giving its operators full access to target data. It was a global menace, with reported use in a variety of countries, from Bahrain to the Netherlands. The victims were generally individuals, often those seen as threats by certain governments. This included activists, journalists, and dissidents.

The financial damage caused by FinFisher is challenging to quantify, as it was used more for surveillance and control than direct monetary gain. However, the cost to the victims in terms of privacy invasion and potential repercussions was significant.

In response to FinFisher, tech companies have worked to patch vulnerabilities that the spyware exploited, and there have been ongoing debates about the ethics and legality of selling such software. There have been no legal consequences for Gamma International.

6. Regin (early 2010s)

Emerging in the early 2010s, Regin was a complex piece of spyware that displayed an exceptional level of sophistication. The true identities of its creators remain a mystery, although many speculate that it was the work of a nation-state due to its complexity and targets.

Regin primarily targeted businesses, government entities, and telecom companies, with a specific focus on Russia and Saudi Arabia. Its capabilities were vast, including taking screenshots, controlling the mouse cursor, and stealing passwords.

Financial damage directly caused by Regin remains unknown, but the potential for significant harm was high given its advanced capabilities and the nature of its targets.

In response to Regin, cybersecurity firms have developed detection and removal tools, and the targeted entities have likely bolstered their defenses. No specific legal consequences have been reported in relation to Regin.

7. DarkHotel (2014)

Around 2014, a peculiar spyware emerged, one that showed a preference for the finer things in life. This was DarkHotel, a spyware that specifically targeted business executives staying in luxury hotels in Asia. The exact perpetrators remain unknown, although some speculate it could be a nation-state due to the level of sophistication.

The attack was primarily localized in Asia, but the victims were international—business executives traveling abroad. This spyware was a serious breach of privacy, with the potential to intercept sensitive business information.

The financial implications of DarkHotel are hard to estimate. Still, the potential for corporate espionage and the theft of trade secrets could have led to significant losses for the affected businesses.

In response to DarkHotel, security firms updated their antivirus software to detect this threat. Hotels and businesses were advised to improve their Wi-Fi security and guests were warned to be cautious when using hotel internet connections.

There have been no reported legal consequences in relation to the DarkHotel attacks. Despite this, the story of DarkHotel serves as a cautionary tale about the importance of cyber security, even when on the road.

8. Fireball (2015)

In 2015, a new kind of menace swept across the digital world. Dubbed Fireball by the cybersecurity firm Check Point, this Chinese spyware turned browsers into zombies, bending them to its will. Behind this widespread infection was Rafotech, a large digital marketing agency.

Fireball primarily infected individual users’ computers, with a staggering estimate of 250 million machines affected worldwide. No corner of the globe was safe from Fireball’s reach, making it a truly international threat.

While it’s hard to put a definitive figure on the financial damage caused by Fireball, the economic implications were significant. By manipulating web traffic, Fireball generated fraudulent advertising revenue and could potentially have been used for more nefarious purposes, like data theft.

In response to Fireball, antivirus and anti-spyware companies quickly updated their software to detect and remove this threat. Users worldwide were advised to regularly update their security software and exercise caution when downloading software from the internet.

No specific legal consequences for Rafotech regarding Fireball have been reported. However, this case serves as a stark reminder of the potential threats lurking in the digital world.

9. Pegasus (mid 2010s)

In the mid-2010s, a new threat emerged from the shadows: Pegasus. Developed by the NSO Group, an Israeli technology firm, this spyware quickly gained notoriety for its power and sophistication. It wasn’t rogue hackers or criminal syndicates behind this software, but a legitimate company selling to governments and law enforcement agencies worldwide.

Pegasus was no respecter of device or operating system. Whether it was an iPhone in Paris or an Android device in Delhi, it could infiltrate them all. This was a spyware with an international reach. The potential for misuse was high, and there were instances where the software was reportedly used to target journalists, activists, and other individuals, breaching their privacy on an unprecedented level.

The financial implications of Pegasus are complex. The spyware itself was likely a lucrative product for the NSO Group, but the cost to those targeted—both in terms of financial loss and the broader impact on human rights and freedom of speech—is immeasurable.

In response to Pegasus, tech companies like Apple and Google have released security updates to protect users from this spyware. However, as the tools for cyber espionage become more sophisticated, this remains an ongoing challenge. There have been no reported legal consequences for the NSO Group in relation to Pegasus.

10. Havex, also known as Dragonfly (mid 2010s)

In the mid-2010s, a stealthy spyware known as Havex began to infiltrate systems, primarily targeting industrial control systems often used in critical infrastructure. Also known as Dragonfly, the perpetrators behind this spyware are unknown but likely a sophisticated cybercriminal group or nation-state.

The geographic scope of Havex was mainly in the United States and Europe, with a particular focus on the energy sector. By infiltrating these systems, Havex had the potential to cause significant disruptions and even physical damage to critical infrastructure.

The direct financial damage caused by Havex is hard to estimate, but the potential for significant harm, both financially and in terms of safety, was immense.

In response to Havex, security firms have developed detection and removal tools, and companies have been advised to improve their security posture, particularly around industrial control systems. No specific legal consequences have been reported in relation to Havex.


As we journey into the future, these stories serve as stark reminders of the shadowy threats lurking in our increasingly digital world. But fear not, for as ominous as these tales may seem, they also illuminate the path to our own digital defense.

One of the most crucial steps you can take is to keep your devices updated. These updates often include patches to vulnerabilities that spyware could exploit. It’s like fixing the locks on your doors to keep burglars out.

Next, consider investing in reliable antivirus software like Norton, Bitdefender, McAfee, Panda, or Kaspersky. This serves as your digital guard dog, constantly on the lookout for any potential threats.

Most importantly, stay informed and vigilant. Be cautious of suspicious emails and downloads, and always protect your personal information.

Here are a few trusted resources where you can learn more about cybersecurity:

  1. National Cyber Security Centre (UK)
  2. Federal Bureau of Investigation – Internet Crime Complaint Center (US)
  3. European Union Agency for Cybersecurity
  4. Australian Cyber Security Centre
  5. Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency (US)

Remember, the digital world is much like our own. While there may be threats, with the right knowledge and tools, we can navigate it safely and securely. The power to protect yourself is in your hands. Stay safe, stay updated, and keep learning.

Author: Tibor Moes

Author: Tibor Moes

Founder & Chief Editor at SoftwareLab

Tibor is a Dutch engineer and entrepreneur. He has tested security software since 2014.

Over the years, he has tested most of the best antivirus software for Windows, Mac, Android, and iOS, as well as many VPN providers.

He uses Norton to protect his devices, CyberGhost for his privacy, and Dashlane for his passwords.

This website is hosted on a Digital Ocean server via Cloudways and is built with DIVI on WordPress.

You can find him on LinkedIn or contact him here.

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