Rootkit Examples (2023): The 10 Worst Attacks of All Time

By Tibor Moes / Updated: May 2023

Rootkit Examples (2023): The 10 Worst Attacks of All Time

Rootkit Examples

Imagine you’re a homeowner, and someone secretly copies your house key, gaining access whenever they want without your knowledge. In the world of computers, there’s a similar invader called a rootkit. It’s like a digital copy of your house key, providing unauthorized access to your computer.

But don’t worry, we’re going to walk you through the 10 most notorious rootkit examples, giving you an idea of how they work and how they’ve been used in the past. Stay with us as we explore these cyber threats.


A rootkit is a piece of malware designed to give hackers access to a target device. Although most rootkits affect the software and the operating system, some can also infect your computer’s hardware and firmware.

  1. NTRootKit (1999): One of the earliest forms of rootkits, NTRootKit was a Russian creation that infiltrated Windows systems globally. It compromised various types of personal data, creating a wave of concern about digital security.
  2. Sony BMG Copy Protection Rootkit (2005): In a misguided attempt to prevent copyright infringement, Sony BMG embedded a rootkit in millions of music CDs. This rootkit unintentionally exposed consumer systems to potential security vulnerabilities, leading to a significant financial fallout for Sony.
  3. FuTo Rootkit (2006): This stealthy rootkit exploited the Windows driver signing mechanism to hide itself, targeting individuals and businesses globally. It served as a stark reminder of the continuous evolution of cyber threats.
  4. Rustock Rootkit (2006): Rustock Rootkit transformed personal computers into machines for sending spam emails, impacting millions of computers worldwide. It underscored the importance of keeping software updated and having robust spam filters.
  5. Mebroot Rootkit (2007): Mebroot Rootkit took over a computer’s boot process, infecting both individuals and businesses. Its discovery led to a greater focus on securing the boot process.
  6. Stuxnet Rootkit (2010): Targeting industrial control systems, particularly Iran’s nuclear facilities, Stuxnet Rootkit was likely state-sponsored. It demonstrated the potential for cyber threats to impact critical infrastructure.
  7. Alureon/TDL-4 Rootkit (2011): Alureon, an advanced rootkit, disrupted systems globally, compromising a broad range of data. It highlighted the escalating sophistication of cyber threats.
  8. ZeroAccess Rootkit (2011): ZeroAccess rootkit was used for click fraud and Bitcoin mining, causing significant disruption and financial loss. It underscored the need for continuous vigilance against diverse cyber threats.
  9. Flame Rootkit (2012): Flame Rootkit was a tool for cyber espionage, targeting Middle Eastern countries. Its discovery led to a renewed focus on securing systems against sophisticated threats.
  10. Uroburos Rootkit (2014): Uroburos Rootkit targeted high-profile institutions for data theft. The discovery of this advanced rootkit led to an increased emphasis on securing systems, especially within organizations handling sensitive data.

Don’t become a victim of rookits. Protect your devices with the best antivirus software and your privacy with the best VPN service.

Rootkit Examples In-Depth

1. NTRootKit – The Digital Intruder of 1999

In the closing year of the 20th century, as the world was bracing for the Y2K bug, another digital menace was quietly on the loose. Originating from Russia, the NTRootKit was one of the earliest forms of rootkits, designed to quietly infiltrate Windows systems, hide processes, and files without detection. The duration of its reign is hard to pin down, as it worked in the shadows, but it was discovered in 1999.

While the exact number of people affected remains unknown, NTRootKit targeted individual users globally, causing a wave of paranoia about the security of personal data. The rootkit didn’t discriminate between types of data, compromising anything from personal photos to financial information.

The global scope of this rootkit’s impact was a wake-up call for many about the dangers lurking in cyberspace. While there was no direct financial damage attributed to the NTRootKit, the potential for misuse of personal data was a significant concern.

As for countermeasures, it was the development of new antivirus software and technologies that eventually curtailed the NTRootKit’s influence. And while the aftermath saw no specific legal consequences due to the anonymity of the perpetrators, it led to a greater emphasis on cybersecurity and the need for stronger digital defenses.

2. Sony BMG Copy Protection Rootkit – A Melody of Malware in 2005 

Fast-forward six years to 2005, the global music giant Sony BMG unwittingly played a different tune with its copy protection rootkit. It was not a case of cybercriminals at work but a misguided attempt to prevent copyright infringement by Sony. The company embedded a rootkit in millions of music CDs sold worldwide. When customers played these CDs on their computers, the rootkit would install itself, opening up systems to potential security vulnerabilities.

The rootkit impacted consumers globally, leading to an international outcry. The exact number of people affected is hard to determine, but with millions of CDs distributed, the scale was considerable. The compromised data was primarily personal, as the rootkit allowed any savvy hacker to gain access to an infected system.

The financial fallout was significant for Sony. The company faced several class-action lawsuits, leading to millions in settlements. It was also forced to recall the affected CDs, causing further financial loss and damaging the company’s reputation.

The countermeasures saw antivirus companies updating their software to detect and remove the Sony rootkit. Sony also released a patch to uninstall the rootkit, though it initially caused more issues than it solved. In the aftermath, the public backlash and legal consequences led to a notable shift in the music industry’s approach to digital rights management. The Sony rootkit incident serves as a reminder that not all threats originate from shadowy corners of the internet; sometimes, they come from the most unexpected places.

3. FuTo Rootkit – The Stealthy Saboteur of 2006

The year 2006 brought with it a new level of cunning in the world of cyber threats. Enter the FuTo Rootkit, an insidious invader that exploited the Windows driver signing mechanism to hide itself. This virtual villain was not associated with a specific individual or group, which only added to the mystery and fear surrounding it.

This rootkit targeted individuals and businesses alike, its global reach not limited to a particular region. The exact number of people affected was hard to quantify, but the stealthy nature of this rootkit meant it could infiltrate many systems without detection. The compromised data varied widely, as FuTo provided a backdoor for other malware, potentially exposing personal and financial information.

While it’s challenging to ascertain the financial damage, the potential for misuse of data and the cost of mitigation efforts would have been significant. The response to the FuTo rootkit saw antivirus companies step up their game, developing new methods to detect and eradicate this stealthy intruder.

The FuTo Rootkit served as a stark reminder of the continuous evolution of cyber threats, emphasizing the importance of maintaining up-to-date security measures and practices.

4. Rustock Rootkit – The Spam Superstorm of 2006

Also in 2006, a different cyber storm was brewing. The Rustock Rootkit, a creation of an unknown entity, was making its way into computers around the globe. Its mission? To create an army of machines capable of sending spam emails, transforming personal computers into unwitting accomplices.

The Rustock Rootkit was not picky about its victims, targeting individuals and businesses alike. It was a global menace, its spam emails filling inboxes from New York to New Delhi. The nature of the data compromised was generally less sensitive, as the primary purpose of Rustock was to send spam. However, the sheer scale of the operation was overwhelming, with millions of computers estimated to have been affected.

While direct financial loss figures are hard to pin down, the cost in terms of wasted time and increased network traffic was substantial. Not to mention, the rootkit was notoriously hard to detect and remove, often requiring expert intervention.

The countermeasures to Rustock were a combined effort by security researchers and law enforcement. In 2011, a coordinated effort led by Microsoft resulted in the takedown of the Rustock botnet. This operation marked a significant victory in the battle against rootkits and served as a blueprint for future botnet takedowns.

The Rustock Rootkit underscored the importance of keeping software updated and having robust spam filters in place. It also served as a reminder that even seemingly innocent spam emails can be a sign of a more serious intrusion.

5. Mebroot Rootkit – The Boot Sector Bandit of 2007

The year 2007 brought with it a new cyber threat in the form of the Mebroot Rootkit. This nasty piece of malware took over a computer’s boot process, allowing it to execute before the operating system and any antivirus programs. The criminals behind Mebroot remain unknown, but their creation made a significant impact on the cyber landscape.

Mebroot’s victims were diverse, ranging from individual users to businesses. Its geographical reach was global, leaving no region untouched. Although the exact number of people affected is unclear, the malware’s widespread distribution suggests it was substantial.

The nature of the data compromised depended on the secondary payloads Mebroot delivered. From stealing banking credentials to installing additional malware, the potential damage was vast. The direct financial losses were hard to determine, but the impact on personal privacy and business operations was significant.

Countermeasures to Mebroot involved a two-pronged approach. Antivirus companies developed detection and removal tools, while internet service providers worked to identify and clean infected machines. The aftermath of Mebroot saw a greater focus on securing the boot process, leading to advancements in computer security.

The Mebroot Rootkit illustrated the ongoing arms race between cybercriminals and cybersecurity professionals. It showed the need for constant vigilance and adaptability in the face of ever-evolving threats.

6. Stuxnet Rootkit – The Industrial Invader of 2010

In 2010, a new player entered the cyber arena. The Stuxnet Rootkit, part of the infamous Stuxnet worm, was not designed to steal credit card numbers or send spam emails. Instead, it targeted industrial control systems, notably in Iran’s nuclear facilities. It is widely believed that Stuxnet was the creation of state-sponsored entities, marking a new era in cyber warfare.

Unlike other rootkits, Stuxnet’s victims were not individuals or businesses but rather a specific country’s infrastructure. Despite its localized target, the discovery of Stuxnet had global implications, revealing the potential for cyber weapons in international conflicts.

The compromised data was not of a personal or financial nature. Instead, Stuxnet manipulated industrial systems, causing physical damage to centrifuges in Iran’s nuclear program. While the financial implications are hard to quantify, the geopolitical impact was substantial.

Countermeasures to Stuxnet involved a complex international response, with cybersecurity firms worldwide rushing to analyze and mitigate the worm. The aftermath saw an increased focus on securing industrial control systems and a new awareness of the potential for cyber warfare.

The Stuxnet Rootkit demonstrated the broadening scope of cyber threats, extending beyond personal computers and into the realm of critical infrastructure. It served as a wake-up call to governments and industries alike about the importance of cybersecurity.

7. Alureon/TDL-4 Rootkit – The Disruptive Demon of 2011

In 2011, a menacing rootkit known as Alureon, or TDL-4, began its reign of digital disruption. Alureon was the brainchild of an anonymous group of cybercriminals, showcasing a new level of sophistication in its design.

Its victims spanned individuals and businesses globally, creating a sizeable footprint of chaos in its wake. Alureon was particularly infamous for crashing Windows Update and neutralizing antivirus software, leaving its victims defenseless. The number of affected individuals and entities is hard to pin down, but given its aggressive nature, it would have been substantial.

The nature of the compromised data was broad, ranging from personal information to financial data. Although direct financial damage figures remain elusive, the cost to repair affected systems and the potential for data misuse was significant.

Countermeasures against Alureon involved a combined effort from security firms and tech companies, who developed specialized tools to detect and remove this stubborn rootkit. Following the Alureon saga, a greater emphasis was placed on securing system vulnerabilities it exploited, leading to improved security practices.

Alureon served as a stark reminder of the escalating sophistication of cyber threats and the importance of maintaining robust, up-to-date computer security measures.

8. ZeroAccess Rootkit – The Bitcoin Bandit of 2011

Also in 2011, the ZeroAccess rootkit was busy creating its own brand of digital mayhem. ZeroAccess was the work of an unknown group, which used it to construct a formidable botnet.

Its targets included individuals and businesses alike, across the globe. The ZeroAccess botnet was used for two primary purposes: click fraud and Bitcoin mining. Both of these activities require significant computing resources, which ZeroAccess commandeered from its victims. While exact numbers are hard to determine, the scale of its operations suggests that millions of computers were likely affected.

While personal or sensitive data wasn’t the primary goal of ZeroAccess, the unauthorized use of computing resources caused considerable disruption and potential financial loss. The cost of the fraudulent clicks alone is estimated to have been millions of dollars, not to mention the electricity used for Bitcoin mining.

The fight against ZeroAccess was a collaborative effort, with tech companies, security firms, and law enforcement agencies teaming up to take down the botnet. This action marked a significant victory against rootkits and demonstrated the potential for successful cooperation in combating cyber threats.

ZeroAccess underscored the diverse motivations behind rootkits, extending beyond data theft to other forms of illicit gain. It highlighted the need for continuous vigilance and strong security practices to protect against these ever-evolving threats.

9. Flame Rootkit – The Espionage Expert of 2012

In 2012, a new specter emerged on the digital horizon: the Flame rootkit. This piece of malware wasn’t interested in financial gain or spam distribution. Instead, it had a more sinister goal – cyber espionage. The creators of Flame remain unknown, but its level of sophistication suggests it was likely state-sponsored.

Flame’s targets were highly specific, focusing on Middle Eastern countries, particularly Iran, for its spying operations. Its purpose was to gather sensitive information, from documents to audio recordings, making it a potent tool for information warfare. Although the number of affected systems was relatively small compared to other rootkits, the sensitive nature of the data Flame targeted made its impact significant.

While financial losses aren’t typically associated with Flame, the geopolitical implications were profound. The stolen data could have been used for various purposes, from influencing diplomatic negotiations to gaining a strategic advantage in conflicts.

Countermeasures against Flame involved the collaborative effort of cybersecurity firms worldwide, analyzing the rootkit and developing detection and removal tools. The aftermath saw a renewed focus on securing systems against such sophisticated threats and the recognition of cyberspace as a new frontier in international espionage.

The Flame rootkit served as a stark reminder of the expanding capabilities of cyber threats, extending beyond personal or financial data theft into the realm of state-sponsored espionage.

10. Uroburos Rootkit – The Data Devourer of 2014

The year 2014 saw the arrival of the Uroburos rootkit, a particularly advanced piece of malware believed to be state-sponsored. Its exact origins remain unknown, but its complexity and targets suggest a well-resourced entity was behind it.

Uroburos targeted high-profile institutions, from businesses to governmental organizations, with a particular focus on data theft. The geographical scope of this rootkit was broad, but its selective targeting meant that the number of victims was fewer than other rootkits. However, the high value of the compromised data made its impact substantial.

The financial implications of Uroburos are hard to quantify, but the theft of sensitive data could lead to significant losses, both in terms of financial cost and strategic advantage. The nature of the stolen data varied but included sensitive corporate and governmental information.

Countermeasures against Uroburos involved the collective effort of cybersecurity firms to analyze, detect, and remove the rootkit. The aftermath saw an increased emphasis on securing systems against such advanced threats, especially within high-profile institutions.

Uroburos underscored the escalating sophistication of rootkits and their potential for targeted, strategic attacks. It served as a reminder of the crucial importance of robust cybersecurity measures, particularly for organizations handling sensitive data.


As we’ve explored, the world of rootkits is a shadowy one, filled with invisible invaders and hidden threats. However, you’re not defenseless against these digital bandits. Here are some practical steps you can take to safeguard your digital life:

  1. Update your devices regularly: Keeping your devices updated is like giving your home a fresh coat of paint and fixing any broken windows – it helps to keep the bad guys out. Updates often include patches for known vulnerabilities that rootkits can exploit.
  2. Invest in a reputable antivirus software: Think of antivirus software as your personal digital bodyguard, constantly watching your back and keeping you safe. Choose a trusted provider like Norton, Bitdefender, McAfee, Panda, or Kaspersky, and make sure it’s always up to date.
  3. Stay informed: Knowledge is power. The more you understand about the threats you face, the better prepared you’ll be to deal with them.

For more information on rootkits and how to protect yourself, consider checking out these trusted cybersecurity resources:

  1. US-CERT: United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team
  2. Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA)
  3. European Union Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA)
  4. UK National Cyber Security Centre
  5. Microsoft Security Blog
  6. Kaspersky Security Blog

Remember, in the battle against rootkits and other cyber threats, you’re not alone. There’s a whole community of security professionals working tirelessly to protect the digital world. By staying informed and taking proactive measures, you can help to make their job a little easier and your digital life a lot safer.

Happy surfing, and stay safe out there!

Author: Tibor Moes

Author: Tibor Moes

Founder & Chief Editor at SoftwareLab

Tibor has tested 39 antivirus programs and 30 VPN services, and holds a Cybersecurity Graduate Certificate from Stanford University.

He uses Norton to protect his devices, CyberGhost for his privacy, and Dashlane for his passwords.

You can find him on LinkedIn or contact him here.