What is a VPN Tunnel? Everything You Need to Know

By Tibor Moes / Updated: June 2023

What is a VPN Tunnel? Everything You Need to Know (2023)

What is a VPN Tunnel?

Are you tired of worrying about the security of your online data and privacy? Well, fret no more, as we have the perfect solution for you: VPN tunnels! In this blog post, we’ll dive deep into the world of tunnels, exploring what a VPN tunnel is, how they work, the different protocols, and how these tunnels play a vital role in protecting your online data and privacy. So buckle up and get ready to embark on a journey that will revolutionize the way you experience the internet!

By the end of this blog post, you’ll have a thorough understanding of what a VPN tunnel is, its importance, and how to choose the right one based on your needs. You’ll also learn about advanced features that will enhance your online experience and security. Ready to dive in? Let’s get started!


  • A VPN (Virtual Private Network) tunnel is a secure and private connection between your device and a remote VPN server, allowing you to send data without the risk of it being intercepted or compromised.

  • It involves three steps: 1. Encrypting your data so that it is unreadable. 2. Breaking the data into smaller pieces, called data packets. 3. Transmitting the packets securely.

  • VPN tunnels are often labeled according to the VPN tunneling protocol that they use. The most common ones are OpenVPN, WireGuard, PPTP, L2TP/IPsec, and SSTP.

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Understanding VPN Tunnels

Imagine yourself sending a precious package through a chaotic and unsafe environment. Now imagine that you had a secure, invisible tunnel that could safely transport your package from one point to another. Sounds amazing, right? This is exactly what a VPN tunnel does!

A VPN (Virtual Private Network) tunnel is a secure and private connection between your device and a remote VPN server, allowing you to send data without the risk of it being intercepted or compromised. VPN tunneling protocols play a crucial role in creating these secure connections, with each protocol offering different levels of security and performance.

By connecting to a VPN server, all your internet traffic is routed through the VPN tunnel, encrypting your data and hiding your IP address. This ensures that your online data remains secure, even when using public Wi-Fi networks or accessing sensitive information like your bank account online.

With several tunneling protocols to choose from, picking the right one for your needs is essential.

How VPN Tunnels Work

Establishing a VPN tunnel may seem like a complex process, but it’s actually quite simple. It involves three main steps: data encryption, encapsulation, and transmission between your device and the VPN server. Encryption ensures that your data is unreadable, even if someone tries to snoop on it, while encapsulation breaks the data into smaller pieces (packets) and places them inside other data packets for secure transmission.

The transmission protocol, which is determined by the tunneling protocol used, creates a secure and encrypted connection between your device and the VPN server. Various tunneling protocols are available, each offering different levels of security and performance. The choice of tunneling protocol will affect the speed and security of your VPN tunnel, so it’s essential to select one that meets your specific needs and requirements.

Data Encryption

Data encryption is the backbone of VPN tunnels, ensuring that your data remains secure and unreadable even if someone tries to intercept it. Different VPN tunneling protocols use various encryption methods to protect your data, with some providing stronger encryption than others. Strong encryption is crucial to keeping your online activities and sensitive information safe from prying eyes and potential hackers.

However, stronger encryption can sometimes come at the cost of reduced performance, as it requires more processing power to encrypt and decrypt the data. Therefore, it’s essential to strike a balance between strong encryption and fast connection speeds, ensuring that your VPN tunnel provides both security and a smooth online experience.

Tunneling Protocols

Tunneling protocols play a significant role in the creation of VPN tunnels, determining the security and performance of the connection. Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP), Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP), Internet Protocol Security (IPSec), Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP), and OpenVPN are some of the more commonly used VPN tunneling protocols. These protocols provide secure connections over internet networks. Each of these protocols has its own strengths and weaknesses, with some offering better security while others prioritize speed and ease of use.

For instance, PPTP is known for its fast speeds but has weaker encryption, making it less secure than other protocols like L2TP and IPSec. On the other hand, SSTP offers exceptional security and speed, but is limited in compatibility, primarily working with Windows devices.

When choosing a tunneling protocol, it’s essential to consider factors such as security, speed, device compatibility, and your specific use case to ensure that the protocol meets your needs.

IP Address Concealment

One of the significant benefits of using a VPN tunnel is the ability to conceal your IP address, maintain your anonymity online, and allowing you to bypass geo-restrictions. By routing your internet traffic through the VPN server, your real IP address is masked, making it appear as if you’re accessing the internet from the server’s location rather than your actual location.

This not only helps protect your privacy but also enables you to access content that may be restricted in your region, such as streaming services like Netflix or Hulu.

Popular VPN Tunneling Protocols

With a plethora of VPN tunneling protocols available, choosing the right one for your needs can be challenging. Each protocol has its own unique set of strengths and weaknesses, making it crucial to understand their differences and how they impact your VPN tunnel’s security and performance. The most popular VPN tunneling protocols include WireGuard, OpenVPN, and IKEv2/IPSec, each offering a unique blend of security, speed, and device compatibility.

Understanding the key features of each protocol is essential when selecting the right VPN tunnel for your specific use case. For instance, WireGuard is known for its simplicity, speed, and strong security features, making it an excellent choice for users who prioritize performance and ease of use. OpenVPN, on the other hand, offers highly customizable security options but may be more complex to set up.

Lastly, IKEv2/IPSec is a stable and fast protocol with strong security features, but has limited compatibility with certain operating systems.


WireGuard is a modern, high-performance VPN tunneling protocol that has gained popularity for its simplicity, speed, and strong security features. Developed as an open-source project, WireGuard has a relatively small codebase, making it easier to audit and maintain compared to other, more complex protocols like OpenVPN.

One of the key advantages of WireGuard is its ability to maintain a stable and fast connection, even when switching networks or experiencing network changes, making it a great choice for mobile users who frequently move between Wi-Fi and cellular networks.

With its ease of use, strong security features, and excellent performance, WireGuard is quickly becoming a popular choice for users in search of a reliable and secure VPN tunneling protocol.


OpenVPN is a versatile, open-source VPN tunneling protocol that has been trusted by users and businesses alike for its excellent security and customization options. Known for its strong encryption and support for various cryptographic algorithms, OpenVPN provides users with a highly secure connection, ensuring that their online data remains private and protected.

While OpenVPN is compatible with most major operating systems, including Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, and iOS, it can be more complex to set up compared to other protocols like WireGuard. However, its highly customizable security options and wide compatibility make it an ideal choice for users seeking a secure and flexible VPN tunneling protocol that can be tailored to their specific needs.


IKEv2/IPSec is a stable and fast VPN tunneling protocol that is highly regarded for its strong security features. Developed by Microsoft and Cisco, IKEv2/IPSec is often used in conjunction with the IPSec protocol to provide a highly secure and efficient VPN tunnel. One of the standout features of IKEv2/IPSec is its ability to maintain a stable VPN connection when switching networks, ensuring that your connection remains secure even when moving between Wi-Fi and cellular networks.

Although IKEv2/IPSec offers excellent security and performance, it has limited compatibility with certain operating systems, primarily working with Windows, macOS, iOS, and Android devices. If you’re using an unsupported operating system, you may need to consider alternative VPN tunneling protocols like WireGuard or OpenVPN to meet your security and compatibility needs.

Advanced VPN Tunnel Features

In addition to the core features of VPN tunnels, some advanced features can further enhance your online security and overall experience. Two of these features, split tunneling and kill switch, can significantly improve your VPN tunnel’s functionality and provide an added layer of control and protection while browsing the internet.

Split tunneling allows you to choose which applications and websites will use the VPN tunnel, while the kill switch will automatically disconnect you from the internet if the VPN connection is lost. Both of these features can be useful.

Split Tunneling

Split tunneling is a handy feature that allows you to selectively route traffic through the VPN tunnel, providing improved performance and control over your internet connection. With split tunneling, you can choose which websites or apps should use the VPN tunnel and which ones should remain outside the tunnel, conserving bandwidth and reducing latency for activities that don’t require the additional security provided by the VPN.

However, it’s essential to exercise caution when using split tunneling, as any traffic that bypasses the VPN will not be encrypted and could be easily intercepted or monitored. Be sure to only use split tunneling when necessary and appropriate, and always prioritize the security of your online data and activities.

Kill Switch

A kill switch is a valuable security feature that automatically disconnects your internet access if the VPN connection is lost or interrupted, ensuring that your online data remains protected at all times. This feature is particularly useful in situations where your VPN connection may become unstable, such as when using public Wi-Fi networks or when traveling.

By automatically cutting off internet access if the VPN connection is compromised, the kill switch helps maintain your privacy and security even in the most challenging online environments.

Choosing the Right VPN Tunnel for Your Needs

Finding the perfect VPN tunnel for your needs may seem daunting, but by considering factors such as security, speed, device compatibility, and specific use cases, you can make an informed decision that best suits your requirements. When evaluating VPN tunneling protocols, pay close attention to the encryption strength and any extra security features like a kill switch or split tunneling.

Furthermore, consider the speed and server locations offered by the VPN provider, as these factors can affect the overall performance and user experience. With a wide range of VPN tunneling protocols available, taking the time to carefully assess your needs and compare the various options will ensure that you choose the right VPN tunnel for a secure, private, and enjoyable online experience.

Setting Up a VPN Tunnel

Once you’ve chosen the ideal VPN tunnel for your needs, it’s time to set it up. The easiest way to create a VPN tunnel is by using a VPN service with an app, which automatically configures the connection for you, eliminating the need for manual setup. Simply download the VPN app, sign in with your account credentials, and select the desired server location to establish a secure VPN tunnel.

For users who prefer a more hands-on approach or require additional customization, you can manually configure a VPN connection on your device or install a VPN on your router. While this method may be more complex and time-consuming, it allows for greater control over your VPN tunnel’s settings and configuration.

Regardless of the setup method you choose, the key is to ensure that your VPN tunnel is secure, reliable, and compatible with your devices and online activities.


In this blog post, we’ve explored the world of VPN tunnels, uncovering the secrets behind their security, performance, and compatibility. We’ve delved into the various tunneling protocols, each with its unique set of strengths and weaknesses, and discussed advanced features like split tunneling and kill switches that can enhance your VPN experience.

Armed with this knowledge, you’re now equipped to make an informed decision in choosing the perfect VPN tunnel for your needs, ensuring that your online data remains secure and private. So go forth and embrace the power of VPN tunnels, knowing that your online activities are protected and your privacy is maintained. Happy browsing!

How to stay safe online:

  • Practice Strong Password Hygiene: Use a unique and complex password for each account. A password manager can help generate and store them. In addition, enable two-factor authentication (2FA) whenever available.
  • Invest in Your Safety: Buying the best antivirus for Windows 11 is key for your online security. A high-quality antivirus like Norton, McAfee, or Bitdefender will safeguard your PC from various online threats, including malware, ransomware, and spyware.
  • Be Wary of Phishing Attempts: Be cautious when receiving suspicious communications that ask for personal information. Legitimate businesses will never ask for sensitive details via email or text. Before clicking on any links, ensure the sender's authenticity.
  • Stay Informed. We cover a wide range of cybersecurity topics on our blog. And there are several credible sources offering threat reports and recommendations, such as NIST, CISA, FBI, ENISA, Symantec, Verizon, Cisco, Crowdstrike, and many more.

Happy surfing!

Frequently Asked Questions

Below are the most frequently asked questions.

What does a VPN tunnel do?

A VPN tunnel is a secure, encrypted connection created between your device and a remote server. It provides a safe and private pathway for data to travel through the internet, protecting your information from prying eyes or cyber-attacks while allowing you to access geo-restricted content.

With a VPN tunnel, you can ensure your online activity remains secure and confidential.

What are examples of VPN tunnels?

VPN tunnels are essentially encrypted connections established between a user’s device and a remote network. They provide secure access to the resources of the remote network, ensuring that data is kept private and secure during transmission.

Examples of VPN tunnels include those using WireGuard, PPTP, L2TP/IPsec, OpenVPN, and SSTP protocols.

How do I find my VPN tunnel?

To find your VPN tunnel, first ping the IP address of a computer on the remote network. Then open the Google Cloud console and go to the VPN page, view the VPN tunnel status and BGP session status, and review the tunnel details.

Additionally, open the navigation pane, select your VPN connection, and choose the Tunnel Details view to review the status of your VPN tunnel.

Why is it called a VPN tunnel?

A VPN tunnel, short for a Virtual Private Network tunnel, is a secure connection between two points on the internet. By using encryption and other security measures, it prevents anyone from snooping in on your private data while it passes through the tunnel.

By creating a tunnel between your device and the VPN server, you can rest assured that all of your online activity is hidden, encrypted, and protected from prying eyes.

Author: Tibor Moes

Author: Tibor Moes

Founder & Chief Editor at SoftwareLab

Tibor has tested 39 antivirus programs and 30 VPN services, and holds a Cybersecurity Graduate Certificate from Stanford University.

He uses Norton to protect his devices, CyberGhost for his privacy, and Dashlane for his passwords.

You can find him on LinkedIn or contact him here.