What is Whale Phishing? Everything You Need to Know (2023)

By Tibor Moes / Updated: June 2024

What is Whale Phishing? Everything You Need to Know (2023)<br />

What is Whale Phishing?

Did you know that in 2016, Snapchat fell victim to a whaling attack when an employee transferred the personal data of over 700 employees to cybercriminals posing as the company’s CEO? The attack led to reputational damage and potential legal consequences for the company.

But what is whale phishing? It is a highly targeted form of spear-phishing, and has become an increasingly common and dangerous threat to businesses worldwide. In this blog post, we will dive into the world of whale phishing, understand its anatomy, and explore strategies to protect your organization from falling victim to these attacks.


  • Whale phishing is a cyber-attack where high-profile targets, like executives, are tricked into revealing sensitive information or making unauthorized transfers.

  • It’s characterized by highly personalized emails, often mimicking internal communications, to gain the target’s trust.

  • Damage includes financial loss, stolen data, and potential reputational harm to the targeted organization.

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Understanding Whale Phishing

Whale phishing, also known as whaling, is a type of spear-phishing attack that specifically targets high-ranking executives, CEOs, and other corporate officers within an organization. The goal of whaling attacks is to deceive these high-level individuals into transferring large sums of money or revealing sensitive company information to the attackers.

The consequences of falling victim to a whaling attack can be catastrophic, with organizations potentially facing financial losses, reputational damage, and legal repercussions.

The goal of whale phishing

The primary objectives behind whale phishing attacks are financial gain and data theft. Cybercriminals use social engineering, email spoofing, and content spoofing tactics to deceive their targets into revealing personal or corporate information or approving fraudulent transactions.

The damage caused by a successful whaling attack can be significant. In some cases, the loss of personal data is difficult to recover from, and the financial consequences can be massive, including costs of investigating the breach and reimbursing affected customers.

Targeting high-level individuals

Whale phishers focus their efforts on high-ranking executives and CEOs because these individuals have access to sensitive information and can authorize large financial transactions. By targeting people in positions of authority and access, cybercriminals increase their chances of obtaining valuable information and funds.

A successful whaling attack can lead to devastating effects on organizations of all sizes, as these high-level individuals usually have more control over data and finances. For this reason, it is crucial for organizations to prioritize the protection of their high-ranking employees from whaling attacks.

Anatomy of a Whaling Attack

Whaling attacks are highly targeted and sophisticated, often relying on social engineering tactics to deceive their victims. Understanding the anatomy of a whaling attack can help organizations identify potential threats and develop effective defense strategies.

A whaling attack typically involves three main steps: researching the target, constructing the attack, and executing the attack.

Researching the target

In order to create a personalized and convincing whaling phishing attack, cybercriminals first need to gather information about their target. They often turn to social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn to collect personal information about high-ranking executives and other corporate officers.

This information is then used to craft an effective phishing attack that is tailored to the victim, making it more difficult for the target to recognize it as a threat. As a result, it is essential for high-level individuals to be cautious about the information they share online and implement privacy restrictions on their social media accounts.

Crafting the attack

Once the cybercriminal has collected the necessary information about their target, they proceed to craft the attack by impersonating a trusted source, such as a senior executive or member of senior management. Personalizing the attack makes it more difficult for the target to spot and increases the chances of success for the attacker.

By using the information gathered during the research phase, the attacker can create a believable and tailored phishing email that appeals to the target’s emotions and encourages them to take the desired action, such as transferring funds or disclosing sensitive information.

Executing the attack

The final stage of a whaling attack involves using email and content spoofing to trick the target into taking the desired action. Attackers often employ social engineering tactics, such as creating a sense of urgency or fear, to manipulate their victims into disclosing sensitive information or approving fraudulent transactions.

By combining these tactics with the personalized email crafted in the previous step, the attacker increases their chances of successfully deceiving the target and achieving their objectives.

To mitigate the risk of falling victim to a whaling attack, it is crucial for high-level individuals to be aware of these tactics and remain vigilant when dealing with emails and requests of this nature.

Identifying Whaling Attacks: Red Flags and Indicators

Recognizing potential whaling attacks is key to protecting your organization from the devastating consequences that can result from a successful attack. By being aware of the common warning signs and red flags associated with whaling attacks, you can take action to prevent them from succeeding and causing damage to your organization.

Some telltale signs of a possible whaling attack include suspicious email characteristics and emotional manipulation tactics.

Suspicious email characteristics

There are several red flags in emails that may indicate a potential whaling attack. These include misspelled URLs, non-corporate addresses, and unusual language. Additionally, emails that convey a sense of urgency or fear, request verification of personal information, or contain spelling and grammar mistakes can be indicative of a whaling attack.

By staying vigilant and paying attention to these suspicious characteristics, you can identify potential whaling attacks and take appropriate action to prevent them from causing harm to your organization.

Emotional manipulation tactics

Whaling attacks often rely on emotional manipulation tactics to convince their targets to take the desired action. Creating a sense of urgency or fear is a common method used by attackers to pressure their victims into acting quickly, without considering the potential consequences of their actions.

By being aware of these tactics and maintaining a critical mindset when dealing with unusual or suspicious emails, you can reduce the likelihood of falling victim to a whaling attack.

Real-life Whaling Attack Examples

Whaling attacks have successfully targeted various companies worldwide, causing significant financial losses and reputational damage. One notable example is the Snapchat whaling attack in 2016, which resulted in the transfer of personal data for over 700 employees to cybercriminals posing as the company’s CEO. Another example is Levitas Capital, a hedge fund that collapsed in 2020 after a whaling attack led to their biggest client leaving the company and severe reputational damage. These real-life examples demonstrate the significant impact and potential consequences of whaling attacks on organizations of all sizes.

By learning from these unfortunate incidents, businesses can better understand the devastating consequences of whaling attacks and prioritize the implementation of effective defense strategies. It is crucial for organizations to remain vigilant and proactive in their approach to cybersecurity, as the stakes are higher than ever in today’s digital landscape.

Protecting Your Organization from Whale Phishing

Defending your organization against whaling attacks requires a multifaceted approach, combining employee education, security measures, and incident response planning. By adopting these strategies, you can reduce the risk of falling victim to these sophisticated attacks and protect your organization from potentially devastating consequences.

Employee education and awareness

One of the most effective ways to protect your organization from whale attacks is through employee education and awareness. By training employees to recognize and report potential whaling attacks, they become the first line of defense against these threats.

It is important for employees to be aware of the risks and consequences of falling victim to whaling attacks, as well as the telltale signs that may indicate an attack is underway. Providing regular training and resources on whale attacks can help employees stay vigilant and better equipped to handle potential threats.

Implementing security measures

In addition to employee education, implementing security measures like anti-phishing controls, multi-layered security approaches, and monitoring systems can help protect your organization from whaling attacks. These measures can help detect and prevent potential attacks before they reach your employees, reducing the risk of falling victim to whaling attacks.

By prioritizing security measures and continuously updating and improving them, you can create a robust defense against whaling attacks and other cyber threats.

Incident response planning

Developing a plan to respond effectively to whaling attacks is crucial in mitigating potential damage and minimizing the impact of these threats on your organization. An incident response plan should include steps to identify the source of the attack, evaluate the damage, and take measures to contain and stop the attack from spreading.

It should also outline procedures for restoring any affected data or systems and preventing similar attacks in the future. By having a well-prepared incident response plan in place, your organization can quickly and effectively handle whaling attacks and minimize their consequences.


In conclusion, whaling attacks pose a significant threat to organizations of all sizes, targeting high-ranking executives and causing devastating financial and reputational damage. By understanding the anatomy of these attacks and recognizing the warning signs, organizations can take steps to protect themselves from falling victim to these sophisticated threats. Implementing a combination of employee education, security measures, and incident response planning can help create a robust defense against whaling attacks and safeguard your organization’s valuable assets.

With the stakes higher than ever in today’s digital landscape, it is crucial for organizations to prioritize cybersecurity and proactively defend against whaling attacks and other cyber threats. By staying vigilant and prepared, you can protect your organization from the potentially devastating consequences of these attacks and maintain the trust of your clients, employees, and stakeholders.

How to stay safe online:

  • Practice Strong Password Hygiene: Use a unique and complex password for each account. A password manager can help generate and store them. In addition, enable two-factor authentication (2FA) whenever available.
  • Invest in Your Safety: Buying the best antivirus for Windows 11 is key for your online security. A high-quality antivirus like Norton, McAfee, or Bitdefender will safeguard your PC from various online threats, including malware, ransomware, and spyware.
  • Be Wary of Phishing Attempts: Be cautious when receiving suspicious communications that ask for personal information. Legitimate businesses will never ask for sensitive details via email or text. Before clicking on any links, ensure the sender's authenticity.
  • Stay Informed. We cover a wide range of cybersecurity topics on our blog. And there are several credible sources offering threat reports and recommendations, such as NIST, CISA, FBI, ENISA, Symantec, Verizon, Cisco, Crowdstrike, and many more.

Happy surfing!

Frequently Asked Questions

Below are the most frequently asked questions.

What is phishing?

Phishing is a scam that uses deceptive messages to steal confidential information. It can come in various forms and use tactics such as impersonation, malicious links and attachments, and urgent requests

What is whale vs spear phishing?

Spear phishing and whale phishing are very similar. Both are phishing attacks that target specific people. But in the case of a whale phishing attack, those people are top-level individuals such as CEOs and CFOs.

Author: Tibor Moes

Author: Tibor Moes

Founder & Chief Editor at SoftwareLab

Tibor has tested 39 antivirus programs and 30 VPN services, and holds a Cybersecurity Graduate Certificate from Stanford University.

He uses Norton to protect his devices, CyberGhost for his privacy, and Dashlane for his passwords.

You can find him on LinkedIn or contact him here.